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World and European History
Chronik der Geschichte

An English-German History Timeline

German, European, and World History
in German and English

Also see: The Last Days of the Berlin Wall

Intro > Bis 1000 > 1001-1200 > 1201-1400 > 1401-1600
1601-1800 > 1801-1900 > 1901-2000 > Berlin: 1945-2000
Hist. Quizzes | Famous Germans, Austrians, Swiss


Click on hyperlinked words or phrases for an English definition and/or more information.

German Historical Dating Conventions
   BC or Before the Common Era (BCE) = vor Christus (v. Chr), vor unserer Zeitrechnung (v.u.Z.)
   AD or Common Era (CE) = nach Christus (n. Chr), unserer Zeitrechnung (u.Z.)
   ca. = circa (zirka), approximately/around

Bis 1000

  • ca. 5000 v. Chr. | Germanische Stämme - Primitive Germanic tribes move into the Rhine and Danube valleys.

  • ca. 2000-800 v. Chr. | Germanische Bronzezeit - A distinctive Germanic bronze culture.

  • 9 n. Chr. | Die Schlacht im Teutoburger Wald - The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was a victory for the Germanic tribes over the Romans. The Roman General Quintilius Varus fell at the hands of Arminus (Hermann der Cherusker). The Rhine (der Rhein) becomes a border between the Romans and the Germanic tribes that lasts almost three centuries. Das Hermannsdenkmal (Monument to Arminius) steht jetzt in der Nähe von Detmold.

  • ca. 15 n. Chr. | Das römische Imperium erobert den größten Teil des heutigen Österreichs. The Roman Empire conquers most of what is today Austria. Durch Eingliederung in das Römische Reich entstehen die Provinzen Raetien, Noricum und Pannonien. Die Römer gründen zahlreiche Siedlungen, die man heute Wien (Vindobona), Bregenz (Brigantium) oder Salzburg (Iuvavum) nennt. The Romans found numerous settlements that are now called Vienna (Vindobona), Bregenz (Brigantium) or Salzburg (Iuvavum).

  • ca. 98 n. Chr. | Der römische Geschichtsschreiber Tacitus veröffentlicht sein Buch »De origine et situ Germanorum«. The Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus (55-120) publishes his (Latin) history of the Germanic people, commonly known by the shorter title Germania. It is thanks to Tacitus and his Latin term for die Deutschen that we now call them "Germans" in English. (It is from the Alemanni [die Alemannen], a Germanic tribe in the region now known as Swabia [Schwaben], that Spanish and French took their names for Germany: Alemania/l'Allemagne.)

  • ca. 350 n. Chr. | Wulfila (Ulfilas, ca. 311-383), a Visagoth bishop, translates the Bible (die Bibel) into the Gothic language (Gothisch). In the process he (1) invents a new Germanic script (die Ulfilas-Schrift) and (2) helps spread Christianity throughout the Germanic region. (See The Bible in German for more.)

  • 406-410 n. Chr. | Die Westgoten greifen das römische Territorium an. The Germanic Visogoths invade Roman territory. They sack Rome in 410 (Einnahme Roms).

  • 776 n. Chr. | Karl der Große (Charlemagne) is crowned king (König) of the Franks. By 778 his empire includes the territory that is today's Austria.

  • 800 | 25. Dezember - Karl der Große (Charlemagne) is crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Kaiser) by Pope Leo III in Rome. Some historians have designated this event and the resulting the "Carolingian renaissance" as the start of modern history.

  • 814 | 28. Januar - Karl der Große dies of pneumonia (stirbt an Lungenentzündung) in Aachen, his capital city. Die Gebeine Karls des Großen ruhen heute im Karlsschrein des Kaiserdoms (Baubeginn 805) in Aachen. Today his bones rest in the Imperial Cathedral (constr. started 805) in the Charlemagne Shrine in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle).

  • 888 | The last of the former empire of Karl der Große is gone. Western Europe is broken up and the target of invaders. In response to the lack of protection from a strong central government, the feudal system (das Feudalsystem, der Feudalismus) emerges.

  • 936 | Otto I. (Otto der Große, 912-973) is crowned King of Germany in Aachen, Charlemagne's former capital (Hauptstadt).

  • 955 | 10. August - Otto I defeats the Magyars (Hungarians) at the battle of Lechfeld (die Schlacht auf dem Lechfeld) in Bayern (Bavaria). During his reign, he unifies the German territories.

  • 962 | Das Heilige Römische Reich Deutscher Nation. Otto I is crowned emperor of the First Reich, created from the eastern part of Charlemagne's former empire. It will officially bear the name of Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation until 1806. (The Deutscher Nation part wasn't added until the 15th century.)

  • 996 | 1. November - First known use of the Latin term Ostarrichi in a parchment document conveying a gift of land to the bishopric of Freising. The Ostarrichi region would later be known as Österreich, or Austria.


NEXT > 1001-1200

MORE > 1201-1400 | 1401-1600 | 1601-1800
MORE > 1801-1900 | 1901-2000 | Berlin: 1945-2000

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